Smart Energy and Sustainable Environment , ISSN 2668-957X
2021, Volume 24, Issue 2
Pages 59-72


Anca Zaharioiu 1,2 , Felicia Bucura 1 , Marius Constantinescu 1 , Irina Petreanu 1 , Florian Marin 1 , Diana Ionela Popescu 1 , Claudia Sandru 1 , Eusebiu Ilarian Ionete 1 , Simona Oancea 2 , Roxana Elena Ionete 1*

1 National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI Rm. Valcea, Uzinei Street no. 4, PO Box Râureni 7, 240050, Râmnicu Vâlcea, Romania
2 Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Food Industry and Environmental Protection, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, 7-9 I. Ratiu Street, 550012 Sibiu, Romania

*Corresponding author: Roxana Elena Ionete, E-mail: 

Received 13 April 2021; Received in revised form 5 July 2021; Accepted 14 July 2021; Available online 9 November 2021


The efficient use of renewable energy resources is one of the most important elements of energy sustainability at the European Union level. The growing demand for energy will continue to support the use of other materials as resources of energy than conventional ones, coal, crude oil and natural gas. This paper investigates the feasibility of valorizing wastes with energetic potential in a multi-component alternative solid fuel. Biomass - vegetable waste (BW), meat and bone meal (MBM) and slag/bottom ash from lignite combustion, in combination with a low-rank, lignite, was used to prepare tri-component mixtures (MBM+Lignite +Slag and MBM+BW+Lignite) indifferent variable proportions, and further characterized to assess their potential for use as energy source. The thermal behavior of the mixtures was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis; the resulting ashes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy.Also, the environmental impact as emissions level after their combustion was considered. In terms of an effective way of removing wastes (e.g. slag/bottom ash and MBM), the most promising proposed solid mixture was the combination MBM(50%): Lignite(25%): Slag (25%), with a high energetic value, > 2700 kcal/kg, a volatile matter content > 35 %wt, and the ash in half amount compared to its initial mass. Thestudy’s findings illustrate the possibility of turning solid waste to raw material by converting them into energy, and promote the development of long-term waste management and recovery solutions.


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Alternative Fuel; Biomass; Meat and bone meal; slag/bottom ash from lignite combustion; Valorization of waste

Tag search Alternative Fuel Biomass Meat bone meal slagbottom ash from lignite combustion Valorization of waste