Progress of Cryogenics and Isotopes Separation , ISSN: 1582-2575
2019, Volume 22, Issue 1
Pages 17-28

Overview of tritium activity in the nuclear fission reactors

Iulian Niţă 1* , Mariea Deaconu 2 , Raluca Fako 1 , Sorin Meglea 1 , Dan Bujoreanu 2

1 Center of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Project, 409, Atomistilor Street, Magurele, Ilfov, Romania
2 Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Street, No. 1, POB 78, 115400, Mioveni, Arges, Romania

*Corresponding authors: Iulian Niţă, E-mail: nitai@router.citon.ro

Published: 2019



Abstract

This paper is focused on the assessment of tritium source term relevant for fission reactors, with the purpose to estimate the tritium production and its behavior upon release to the environment. The scope of the paper is to discus tritium production aspects of European existing fleet of fission reactors, to derive a preliminary estimate of the probable tritium releases and source terms and to identify areas where advancement of fission reactor tritium controls technology will be required. During the reactor operation, the tritium is generated both as a fission product, by ternary fission, and as an activation product from neutrons interacting with different elements of the reactor core. Different reactor types generate different amounts of tritium, by different production mechanisms. That is because, depending on various reactor types, the processes of tritium production and migration differ due to the use of various fuel types, structural materials of fuel cladding, temperature modes of operation, types of moderator and coolant and the systems that ensure radiation safety. Since, from the radiological point of view, release of tritium (3H) can significantly impact human health and environmental safety, the behavior of 3H in nuclear systems is of great concern in nuclear designs.


References

  • V. Alexseev, S. V. Zabrodskaia, K. V. Tykleeva, A. G. Tsikunov, 2017
    The method of calculating tritium content in various technological media of BN-type reactors
     IAEA-CN245-459

  • ASN
    Livre blanc du tritium
    2014 (http://www.asn.fr/sites/tritium)

  • Babcock & Wilcox Canada, 1979
    Cernavoda Steam Generators Design
    Project No. 7505/7506

  • Chang H. Oh, Eung S. Kim, Mike Patterson, 2010
    Development of Tritium Permeation Analysis Code and Tritium transport In a High Temperature Gas
    Proceeding of ICAPP’10, San Diego, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6c03/ b77ac9979e39f52088f347ab66f1cf59ae7a.pdf

  • Gheorghe Bulubașa, 2019
    Studies on helium-3 separation at Cernavoda nuclear power plant
    Fusion Engineering and Design, ISSN: 0920-3796

  • Luciano Cinotti, M.E. Revus, 2012
    Overview of Nuclear Power Plant
    The Generation IV International Forum, Madrid, 11-June, Plenary Session presentation

  • Charles W. Forsberg, Stephen Lam, David M. Carpenter, Dennis G. Whyte, Raluca Scarlat, Cristian Contescu, Liu Wei, John Stempien, Edward Blandford, 2017
    Tritium control and capture in salt-cooled fission and fusion reactors: status, challenges, and path forward
    Nuclear Technology, 195(2): 119-139

  • E. Franza, A. Ciampichetti, M. Zucchetti, 2011
    Analisi del trasporto del trizio nei sistemi SFR – 2011
    NNFISSLP3_020

  • Michael A. Fütterer, Li Fu, Carl Sink, Sanderde Groot, Manuel Pouchon, Yong Wan Kim, Frank Carré, Yukio Tachibana, 2014
    Status of the very high temperature reactor system
    Progress in Nuclear Energy, 77:266-281

  • Daniela Elena Gugiu, Şerban Constantin Valeca, Florin Cosmin Bortosu, May 2018
    Isotopic inventory evaluations in lead-cooled fast reactors
    Journal of Nuclear Research and Development, 15:9-13

  • Ph. Guétat, S. Rochefort, J. P. Daclin, C. Douche, 2009
    Industrial experience of waste management in a tritium plant
    Fusion Science and Technology, 56(2):794-798

  • IRSN, 2009
    Tritium in the Environment: Knowledge State of the Art
    Report No. DEI 2009-05

  • Jacobs D.C., 1968
    Sources of Tritium and its Behaviour upon Release to the Environment (Critical Review Series, T1D-24635)
    USAEC, Washington

  • Karine Ligera, Christian Grisolia, Ion Cristescu, Carlos Moreno, Véronique Malard, Dave Coombs, Sabina Markelj, 2018
    Overview of the TRANSAT (TRANSversal Actions for Tritium) project
    Fusion Engineering and Design 136:168-172

  • McGuire J.C., Renner T.A. 1978
    Control of tritium in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors
    Atomic Energy Review, 16(4):657-695, ISSN: 0004-7112

  • M. Nolon, May 1981
    An Overview of Environmental Control Aspects for the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor

  • Peggs (BNL/ESS), W. Horak, T. Roser (BNL), G. Parks (Cambridge U.), M. Lindroos (ESS), R. Seviour (ESS/Huddersfield U.), S. Henderson (FNAL), R. Barlow, R. Cywinski (Huddersfield U.), J.-L. Biarrotte (IPN), A. Norlin (IThEO), V. Ashley, R. Ashworth (Jacobs), A. Hutton (JLab), H. Owen (Manchester U.), P. McIntyre (TAMU), J. Kelly (Thor Energy/WNA - Thorium Energy Futures Proceedings of IPAC2012, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA - MOOBA01 - 2012

  • UN, ILO and WHO (United Nations, International Labour Organization and World Health Organization), 1983
    Environmental health criteria for selected radionuclides .Environmental Health
    Criteria 25. ISBN: 92 4 154085 0
    • Investigation of the Environmental Fate of Tritium in the Atmosphere, INFO-0792, Canada’s Nuclear Regulator, 2009
    • Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, 2017, Reference data series no. 2, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2017 Edition
    • Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants, 2009, Annual Report 2009, U.S. NRC NUREG/CR-2907, Vol. 15

    Keywords

    tritium generation, fission reactors, tritium management, nuclear power plant


    Tag search tritium generation fission reactors tritium management nuclear power plant