TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN EUROPEAN UNION (EU-28): A PERSPECTIVE ON ROMANIAMihaela Iordache 1 , Ramona Ionela Zgavarogea 1 , Andreea Maria Iordache 1 , Marius Constantinescu 1 , Felicia Bucura 1 , Roxana Elena Ionete 1 , Remus Grigorescu 2 , Constantin Nechita 3,4*
1 National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI Rm. Valcea, Uzinei Street no. 4, PO Box Râureni 7, 240050, Râmnicu Vâlcea, Romania
2 Constantin Brancoveanu University, Bulevardul Nicolae Bălcescu 39, 240177, Râmnicu Vâlcea, Romania
3 National Research and Development Institute for Forestry "Marin Drăcea" Calea Bucovinei, 73 bis, 725100, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Romania
4 Department of Forestry, University of Suceava “Ștefan cel Mare”, Universității 13, 720229, Romania
*Corresponding authors: Constantin Nechita, E-mail: email@example.com and Ramona Zgavarogea, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgReceived 14 January 2021; Received in revised form 26 February 2021; Accepted 7 July 2021; Available online 8 November 2021
The European mitigation strategy for combatting climate change requires up-to-date knowledge about the environmental effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the national scale. As a strong response to the consequences of climate change, the European Union has imposed on the member states an obligation to achieve the goals set out in the climate and energy package, which were aimed at reducing emissions. Therefore, underlying the trends of GHG emissions is essential when establishing climate change mitigation measures. This study identify the structure and dynamics of the GHG emissions of the six sectors of the European economies, over 27 years, and reveal the significance, direction, rate, and drivers of the observed trends using the method of modifying the absolute mean. The results indicate a decrease in the GHG emissions in the EU-28 by an average of 1% annually, which can be explained by a mixt factors, such as resize of the industry, improved energy efficiency, the growing share of renewables and less use of carbon fuels. Moreover, through the environmental policies adopted in the last decade, was observed that the GHG emissions level in 2017 had declined by approximately 25% in comparison with the reference (1990) and by approximately 17% by 2005. From the 28 EU countries (EU-28), Romania produced 4.2% of the total EU-28 GHG emissions in 1999, which decreased to 2.7% in 2005 and reaching 2.3% in 2017. Romania contributed to 14% of the average annual decrease in emissions. This evidence highlights the additional support for further reduction beyond that required for climate change mitigation.
Allen, M.R., O.P. Dube, W. Solecki, F. Aragón-Durand, W. Cramer, S. Humphreys, M. Kainuma, J. Kala, N. Mahowald, Y. Mulugetta, R. Perez, M. Wairiu, and K. Zickfeld, 2018. Framing and Context. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)], In Press.
Arioli, M.S., D'Agosto, M. de A., Amaral, F.G., Cybis, H.B.B., 2020. The evolution of city-scale GHG emissions inventory methods: A systematic review. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2019.106316.
Cellura, M., Cusenza, M.A., Longo, S., 2018. Energy-related GHG emissions balances: IPCC versus LCA. Sci. Total Environ. 628-629, 1328-1339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.145.
Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 of September 29 2003 establishing common rules for direct support schemes under the common agricultural policy and establishing certain support schemes for farmers and amending Regulations (EEC) No 2019/93, (EC) No 1452/2001, (EC) No 1453/2001, (EC) No 1454/2001, (EC) 1868/94, (EC) No 1251/1999, (EC) No 1254/1999, (EC) No 1673/2000, (EEC) No 2358/71 and (EC) No 2529/2001.
EC, COM(2011) 112 - A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 — European Environment Agency, 2011. https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/com-2011-112-a-roadmap (accessed February 26 2020).
Crippa, M., Oreggioni, G., D, G., Muntean, M., Schaaf, E., Lo Vullo, E., Solazzo, E., Monforti-Ferrario, F., Olivier, J.G.., Vignati, E., 2019. Fossil CO2 and GHG emissions of all world countries - 2019 Report, EUR 29849 EN. Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2760/687800.
De Campos, C.P., Muylaert, M.S., Rosa, L.P., 2005. Historical CO2 emission and concentrations due to land use change of croplands and pastures by country. Sci. Total Environ. 346, 149–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.053.
Diniz Oliveira, T., Costa Gurgel, A., Tonry, S., 2019. International market mechanisms under the Paris Agreement: A cooperation between Brazil and Europe. Energy Policy 129, 397–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.01.056.
Ellison, D., Lundblad, M., Petersson, H., 2014. Reforming the EU approach to LULUCF and the climate policy framework. Environ. Sci. Policy 40, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.03.004.
Hachem, C., 2016. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions. Appl. Energy 177, 422–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.05.117.
Harris, S., Weinzettel, J., Bigano, A., Källmén, A., 2020. Low carbon cities in 2050? GHG emissions of European cities using production-based and consumption-based emission accounting methods. J. Clean. Prod. 248, 119206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.119206.
Krausmann, F., Wiedenhofer, D., Haberl, H., 2020. Growing stocks of buildings, infrastructures and machinery as key challenge for compliance with climate targets. Glob. Environ. Chang. 61, 102034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102034.
Law no. 3/2001 for the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted on December 11, 1997.
Law no. 24/1994 for the ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro on June 5, 1992.
LAW no.57 of April 10, 2017 for the ratification of the Paris Agreement, concluded in Paris on December 12, 2015 and signed by Romania in New York on April 22, 2016.
Leung, D.Y.C., Caramanna, G., Maroto-Valer, M.M., 2014. An overview of current status of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.093.
Li, Z., Wang, D., Sui, P., Long, P., Yan, L., Wang, X., Yan, P., Shen, Y., Dai, H., Yang, X., Cui, J., Chen, Y., 2018. Effects of different agricultural organic wastes on soil GHG emissions: During a 4-year field measurement in the North China Plain. Waste Manag. 81, 202-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. wasman.2018.10.008.
Olivier, J. G., Schure, K. M., & Peters, J. A. H. W. (2017). Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 5.
Oka, K., Mizutani, W., & Ashina, S. (2020). Climate change impacts on potential solar energy production: A study case in Fukushima, Japan. Renewable Energy, 153, 249-260.
Preston, B.L., Jones, R.N., 2006. Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
Ramachandra, T. V., Bharath, H.A., Kulkarni, G., Han, S.S., 2018. Municipal solid waste: Generation, composition and GHG emissions in Bangalore, India. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.085.
Rive, N., Fuglestvedt, J.S., 2008. Introducing population-adjusted historical contributions to global warming. Glob. Environ. Chang. 18, 142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.09.004
Romania - 2016-2020 National action plan on climate change.
Sferra, F., Krapp, M., Roming, N., Schaeffer, M., Malik, A., Hare, B., & Brecha, R. (2019). Towards optimal 1.5° and 2° C emission pathways for individual countries: A Finland case study. Energy Policy, 133, 110705.
Shen, L., Sun, Y., 2016. Review on carbon emissions, energy consumption and low-carbon economy in China from a perspective of global climate change. J. Geogr. Sci. 26, 855-870. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-016-1302-3.
Song, J., Yang, W., Wang, S., Wang, X., Higano, Y., Fang, K., 2018. Exploring potential pathways towards fossil energy-related GHG emission peak prior to 2030 for China: An integrated input-output simulation model. J. Clean. Prod. 178, 688-702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.062.
Štreimikiene, D., Balezentis, T., 2016. Kaya identity for analysis of the main drivers of GHG emissions and feasibility to implement EU "20-20-20" targets in the Baltic States. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.311.
Su, M., Pauleit, S., Yin, X., Zheng, Y., Chen, S., Xu, C., 2016. Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 2012. Appl. Energy 184, 759-768. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. apenergy.2016.02.074.
Torres, M., Pinho, P., 2011. Encouraging low carbon policies through a Local Emissions Trading Scheme (LETS). Cities 28, 576–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2011.06.005.
UNFCCC (1992). "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Article 4, Para 1(a)." IPCC (1995a). Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change - Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.
UNFCCC, 2015. Historic Paris Agreement on Climate Change 195 Nations Set Path to Keep Temperature Rise Well Below 2 Degrees Celsius.
Vares, S., Häkkinen, T., Ketomäki, J., Shemeikka, J., Jung, N., 2019. Impact of renewable energy technologies on the embodied and operational GHG emissions of a nearly zero energy building. J. Build. Eng. 22, 439-450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.12.017.
WMO Provisional Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2019 | World Meteorological Organization [WWW Document], n.d. URL https://public.wmo.int/en/resources/library/wmo-provisional-statement-state-of-global-climate-2019 (accessed February 19 2020).
Zheng, X., Streimikiene, D., Balezentis, T., Mardani, A., Cavallaro, F., Liao, H., 2019. A review of greenhouse gas emission profiles, dynamics, and climate change mitigation efforts across the key climate change players. J. Clean. Prod. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.140.
World Meteorological Organization, 2016. WMO Greenhouse gas Bulletin – The state of Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere based on global observations through 2016, https://ane4bf-datap1.s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/wmocms/s3fs-public/ckeditor/files/GHG_Bulletin_13_EN_final_1_1.pdf?LGJN mHpwKkEG2Qw4mEQjdm6bWxgWAJHa (accessed in March 31 2020).
climate change; CO2; environmental policies; greenhouse gas emissions; sustainable development